biographyActress Julie Adams was born Betty Adams in Waterloo, Iowa, on October 17, 1926. After spending her formative years in Arkansas, she moved to California and worked as a secretary while taking acting lessons and trying to break into films. Her hard work paid off when she was given her first part, a small role in Paramount's Red Hot and Blue (1949), which she followed up with a series of seven quickie westerns produced by Lippert and starring James Ellison and Russell Hayden. By 1951, Adams had landed a contract with Universal; whereas she had used her real name in her previous films, Universal changed her name to Julia Adams. Later in the 1950s, her billing changed again, to Julie Adams. Universal wasted little time in motivating its publicity department to build up the beautiful actress.
Ray Danton in 1955, with whom she starred in The Looters.
the films of julie adams
Scenes from Universal-International's The Lawless Breed with Rock Hudson
LEFT: Julie Adams gets friendly with Richard Carlson in Creature from the Black Lagoon, one of Universal's best films from the 1950s. RIGHT: Adams with the Creature
The Private War of Major Benson (1955)
Scenes from the Universal-International comedy The Private War of Major Benson. The right photo includes Charlton Heston
The Looters (1955)
Four Girls in Town (1956)
Adams with George Nader in Four Girls in Town
Slaughter on Tenth Avenue (1957)
With Richard Egan in the film noir drama Slaughter on Tenth Avenue
The Underwater City (1962)
LEFT: As Dr. Monica Powers in Columbia's science fiction thriller The Underwater City. RIGHT: Smooching with William Lundigan
Julie Adams starred in one of Ray Danton's directorial efforts, the effective, low-budget horror flick Psychic Killer
Code Red (1981-1982 ABC TV Series)
From the ABC series Code Red with Andrew Stevens, Sam J. Jones, and Lorne Green
julie adams todayBy 1960, Adams slowed her output in order to raise her two sons with Ray Danton. In the 1960s, she made just a few films, such as the 1965 Elvis Presley vehicle Tickle Me. However, Adams made numerous guest appearances on popular television shows such as Perry Mason, The Virginian, and The Big Valley. In the 1970s, Adams began taking on more roles, mostly on television. In 1970, she accepted a lead role on the series The Bold Ones, but the show was canceled in 1971. Just a few months later, she took another role on a TV series, this time as Jimmy Stewart's wife on The Jimmy Stewart Show, but this series was canceled in 1971 after just one season. See the filmography below for more information.
Adams and second husband Ray Danton worked together a number of times in film and on television. In addition to being in the films The Looters (1955) and Tarawa Beachhead (1958), Adams and Ray Danton guest starred on a January 1972 episode of Rod Serling's Night Gallery entitled The Miracle at Camafeo, and Ray Danton directed his wife in the 1975 horror flick Psychic Killer, written by Greydon Clark. Married for more than 20 years, the couple divorced in 1978. (Ray Danton passed away in 1992.) Julie Adams was still in demand throughout the 1980s on television, and in 1987 accepted a recurring role on the CBS-TV series Murder, She Wrote. Recently, Adams has been in front of the camera on such series as Lost and CSI: NY and acted in the film World Trade Center (2006; with Nicolas Cage).
julie adams films available at movies unlimited
One Step Beyond, Vol. 3 [DVD] DVD
First, a recovering alcoholic's sobriety is put to the test when his son becomes trapped in a well in "Epilogue." With Julie Adams, Charles Aidman. Next, jockeys Walker Burke and Ben Cooper square off against each other at a supernatural racetrack in "Front Runner." Then, grieving actress Margaret Phillips receives a message from her dead child in "Call from Tomorrow." Finally, a family enlists the help of a hypnotist when they become haunted by a strange creature in "Ordeal on Locust Street." Stars Suzanne Lloyd, Gary Campbell. 100 min. total. Standard; Soundtrack: English. Plays All Regions.
Alfred Hitchcock Presents: Season Five [DVD](1959) DVD
All 38 episodes from the series's fifth season--including "Dry Run," (with Walter Matthau), "Road Hog" (with Richard Chamberlain), "Man from the South" (with Steve McQueen and Peter Lorre), "Mother, May I Go Out to Swim?" (with William Shatner), and "Hooked" (with Anne Francis)--are collected in a five-disc set. 16 1/3 hrs. total. Standard; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: English (SDH). **38 episodes on 5 discs. 16 1/3 hrs.**
Big Iron Collection [DVD] DVD
In 1950, Lippert Pictures teamed up ex-Hopalong Cassidy sidekicks Jimmy "Shamrock" Ellison and Russ "Lucky" Hayden and released a series of six B-westerns, all featured in this two-disc collection. The fellas wind up in "Hostile Country" when they find an owlhoot posing as Ellison's stepdad. With Betty (Julie) Adams, Fuzzy Knight. AKA: "Outlaw Fury." When Jimmy becomes "Marshal of Heldorado," he needs Russ' help to clean up the lawless town. Adams, Knight co-star. AKA: "Blazing Guns." Ellison's search for his family's killers puts him at odds with Hayden in "Crooked River," co-starring Adams, Tom Tyler. AKA: "The Last Bullet." It's a range war in the Rockies with Hayden, Ellison, and Raymond Hatton in "Colorado Ranger." AKA: "Guns of Justice." Jimmy's got trouble "West of the Brazos" when an outlaw impersonates him to claim land loaded with oil. AKA: "Rangeland Empire." And, growing up gun-shy after some rannies shot and killed his folks, Ellison gets a lesson from Hayden in how to be "Fast on the Draw" and dispense some justice. Adams, Hatton, Knight co-star. AKA: "Sudden Death." 5 1/2 hrs. total. Standard; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono.
Legendary Outlaws Double Feature, Vol. 3: The Dalton Gang (1949)/I Shot Billy The Kid [DVD](1950) DVD
First, deputy marshal Donald "Red" Barry, investigating the murders of several local ranchers, gets a tip from a newspaper editor pal that the man he's looking for is the leader of a notorious band of gunmen called "The Dalton Gang." With Robert Lowery, Byron Foulger. And, Barry and Lowery team up again in "I Shot Billy the Kid," which chronicles the tumultuous relationship and fateful final showdown between the infamous gunslinger (Barry) and lawman Pat Garrett (Lowery). Wally Vernon, Tom Neal co-star. 115 min. total. Standard; Soundtrack: English; biographies; theatrical trailer.
Legendary Outlaws Collector's Set [DVD] DVD
Three-disc set includes "The Great Jesse James Raid," "Renegade Girl," "The Return of Jesse James," "Gunfire" (1950), "The Dalton Gang," and "I Shot Billy The Kid."
Western Horizons: Universal Westerns Of The 1950s [DVD] DVD
Embittered Confederate veteran Robert Ryan builds a Texas land empire through force and graft, but his ambition brings him into conflict with the law and marshal brother Rock Hudson, in "Horizons West" (1952). Julia Adams, Raymond Burr, James Arness co-star; Budd Boetticher directs. Cree-raised Mountie Alan Ladd must tread lightly when the warlike Sioux cross the border in search of a tribal alliance in "Saskatchewan" (1954). Shelley Winters, Hugh O'Brian, Jay Silverheels co-star; Raoul Walsh directs. Tubercular gunman Rory Calhoun makes a new life in New Mexico, but conflict manages to find him still, in "Dawn at Socorro" (1954). Piper Laurie, Lee Van Cleef, Alex Nicol co-star. Cowpoke Richard Widmark rides after the survivor who left his father to die in an Apache ambush in "Backlash" (1956). Donna Reed, John McIntire, Barton MacLane co-star; John Sturges directs. Sergeant Jeff Chandler's orders to keep peace on an Oregon reservation are challenged by encroaching army engineers in "Pillars Of The Sky" (1956). Dorothy Malone, Ward Bond, Lee Marvin co-star. 7 hrs. total on five discs. Standard/Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtrack: English; photo gallery.
Bend Of The River [DVD](1952) DVD
James Stewart is an outlaw-turned-wagon scout who must help settlers reach Oregon Territory in an exciting frontier action tale. Also stars Arthur Kennedy as Stewart's treacherous rival, Julie Adams, Harry Morgan and Rock Hudson. 91 min. Standard; Soundtracks: English Dolby Digital mono, French Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: Spanish, French; theatrical trailer.
James Stewart: The Western Collection [DVD] DVD
Six-disc set includes "Destry Rides Again," "Winchester '73" (1950), "Bend of the River," "The Far Country" (1955), "Night Passage," and "The Rare Breed."
Classic Western Round-Up, Vol. 1 [DVD] DVD
One-time desperadoes Fred MacMurray and Jack Oakie go straight and join "The Texas Rangers" (1936) in their fight to uphold the law in Lone Star territory. When one of their former partners continues his outlaw ways, MacMurray and Oakie are called on to catch him. Lloyd Nolan, Jean Peter co-star. Next, the Oregon Territory of the 1850s is the setting for a bitter rivalry between scout-turned-general store owner Dana Andrews and crooked banker Brian Donlevy--a rivalry that intensifies when beautiful Susan Hayward comes between them--in "Canyon Passage" (1946). Audie Murphy stars as a young Jesse James, who becomes the protege of notorious outlaw William Quantrill (Donlevy) before making history as leader of his own gang, in "Kansas Raiders" 1950). With Marguerite Chapman, Tony Curtis. And, in his fir st starring role, Rock Hudson plays famed frontier badman John Wesley Hardin in director Raoul Walsh's well-crafted Western biodrama "The Lawless Breed" (1953). Julia Adams, John McIntyre and Lee Van Cleef also star. 6 hrs. total on two discs. Standard; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: English (SDH), French; theatrical trailers.
Classic Western Round-Up, Vol. 2 [DVD] DVD
Prairie fires, snowstorms, hostile Indians, and a gun-smuggling Joan Bennett are just some of the problems trail boss Randolph Scott has to cope with on a 10,000-head cattle drive to Kansas, in "The Texans" (1938). With May Robson, Robert Cummings, Walter Brennan. Barbara Stanwyck is a gambling queen with a shady past who joins forces with an Army deserter and an old-time miner to face off against a powerful land baron, in "California" (1946). Ray Milland, Barry Fitzgerald also star. Then, Audie Murphy is a gunman who is wrongly accused of helping the Dalton gang in a train robbery--then joins them for real, in "The Cimarron Kid" (1952). With Beverly Tyler, James Best. Finally, Glenn Ford stars as "The Man from the Alamo" (1953), Branded a coward for his actions at the doomed fortress, Ford must fight to prove himself during the Mexican War. Julia Adams, Victor Jory, Hugh O'Brian co-star. 6 hrs. total on two discs. Standard; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: English (SDH), French; theatrical trailers.
Universal Classic Monsters: The Essential Collection [Blu-ray]
Eight-disc set includes "Dracula" (1931), the Spanish-language version of "Dracula" (1931), "Frankenstein" (1931), "The Mummy" (1932), "The Invisible Man" (1933), "Bride of Frankenstein," "The Wolf Man" (1941), "Phantom of the Opera" (1943), and both the regular and 3D versions of "The Creature from the Black Lagoon," plus audio commentary, documentaries, interviews, a collectible 48-page book, and more.
Creature From The Black Lagoon [DVD](1954) DVD
A team of scientists on an expedition down the Amazon finds more than they bargained for in the form of a water-breathing, half-human gillman, and soon the hunters become the hunted! Richard Carlson, Julia Adams, Richard Denning star in this classic sci-fi chiller. Not in 3-D. 79 min. Standard; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: French; audio commentary; biographies; "making of" documentary; theatrical trailer.
Francis The Talking Mule Complete Collection [DVD] DVD
Francis (voiced by Chill Wills) tags along when pal Peter Stirling (Donald O'Connor) gets pressed back into service, and has a horselaugh when he's erroneously assigned to an all-women's base, in "Francis Joins the WACS" (1954). Julia Adams, Mamie Van Doren, ZaSu Pitts co-star. Peter (O'Connor) has to set sail for Coronado when Francis is about to be sold as surplus in "Francis in the Navy" (1955). Martha Hyer, Jim Backus co-star; keep an eye out for a young Clint Eastwood. In the final series entry, Francis gets a new human sidekick (Mickey Rooney), a new voice (Paul Frees), and some spooky murders to solve, in "Francis in the Haunted House" (1956). Virginia Welles, David Janssen co-star. Three-disc set also includes "Francis the Talking Mule," "Francis Goes To The Races," "Francis Goes To West Point," and "Francis Covers The Big Town." 10 hrs. total. Standard; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: English (SDH), Spanish, French.
Tarawa Beachhead [DVD](1958) DVD
A sergeant serving in Guadalcanal witnesses his superior officer murder another soldier in a corrupt bid for glory. Keeping silent for lack of proof, the marine later falls in love with the slain man's widow, only to find her husband's killer seducing her sister. Riveting World War II drama stars Kerwin Matthews, Julie Adams, and Ray Danton. 76 min. Widescreen; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono.
Tickle Me [DVD](1965) DVD
A light-hearted Elvis romp, with the handsome crooner playing a former rodeo star who signs on to work at a health ranch whose clientele includes bevies of beautiful girls. With Julie Adams, Jocelyn Lane. Songs include "If It Feels So Right" and "I'm Yours." 91 min. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: English (SDH), French; theatrical trailer.
Go Ask Alice [DVD](1973) DVD
Desperate for attention, a shy high school girl takes up with a crowd of drug users and is drawn into a world of narcotics, alcohol and prostitution. Based on the powerful "real-life diary" and shot in a cinema verite style, this acclaimed TV drama stars Jamie Smith-Jackson, Julie Adams, William Shatner, Jennifer Edwards, and Andy Griffith. 73 min. Soundtrack: English.
McQ [DVD](1974) DVD
Dirty Harry has nothing on the Duke in this crime thriller about a cop pushed to his limits. John Wayne stars as a tough-as-nails Seattle police lieutenant who quits the force and goes up against department corruption in order to clear his late partner's name. Eddie Albert, Diana Muldaur, Colleen Dewhurst, David Huddleston, Roger E. Mosley also star. 111 min. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtracks: English Dolby Digital mono, French Dolby Digital mono; Subtitles: English, French, Spanish; featurette; theatrical trailers.
Psychic Killer [DVD](1975) DVD
This paranormal shocker stars Jim Hutton as a mental patient who finds himself suddenly imbued with psychic powers while hospitalized on a trumped-up murder charge. When he emerges from his confinement, he starts using his powers of astral projection in grisly fashion against those who've wronged him. Julie Adams, Neville Brand, and Aldo Ray co-star. 90 min. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; TV spots; theatrical trailer.
Six Characters In Search Of An Author [DVD](1976) DVD
A bold reimagining of Pirandello's classic finds the play's typical theater setting transplanted to a TV studio, where a group of actors about to rehearse an adaptation of another Pirandello play are replaced by mysterious strangers. The new personalities take the actors and directors to task, claiming they have a better story to tell. Stacy Keach directs a top-notch cast that includes Andy Griffith, John Houseman, Julie Adams, Beverly Todd and James Keach. 90 min. Standard; Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono.
Champions [DVD](1984) DVD
The inspirational story of Bob Champion is told in this uplifting biopic that stars John Hurt as the famed British jockey. Upon discovering that he has cancer during a vacation in Kentucky, he is forced to endure painful chemotherapy. But when his disease goes into remission, he becomes determined to participate in the prestigious Grand National Steeplechase race--living up to his name in the process. With Edward Woodward, Ann Bell. 114 min. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital stereo.
Black Roses [DVD](1988) DVD
Heavy metal superstar Damien (Sal Viviano) packs a lot more than secret messages in his songs...the music actually turns normal, fun-loving teens into savage creatures! And you thought those parental advisory stickers would save the souls of your children. Rockin' good shocker stars John Martin, Julie Adams, Carla Ferrigno, and music master Carmine Appice. 84 min. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital mono; audio commentary.
Backtrack [DVD](1989) DVD
In this gangster thriller directed by Dennis Hopper, Jodie Foster plays a woman who changes her identity and moves to another town after witnessing a mob murder. A hit man (Hopper) sent to kill her has found her, but soon he falls in love with his target, and they're both dodging the mob and feds. Dean Stockwell, Vincent Price, John Turturro, Fred Ward and Bob Dylan also star. Special director's cut version; 102 min. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtrack: English Dolby Digital Surround; photo gallery; interactive menus; scene access.
The Nicolas Cage Collection [DVD] DVD
In "Snake Eyes" (1998), a championship boxing match at an Atlantic City resort ends with the fatal shooting of the secretary of defense at ringside. Local detective Nicolas Cage teams with his friend, Navy commander Gary Sinise, to locate the sniper. What Cage finds, however, is a far-reaching conspiracy in this taut thriller from director Brian DePalma. With Carla Gugino, John Heard. Three-disc set also includes "Face/Off" (Special Collector's Edition) and "World Trade Center." 6 hrs. total. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtracks: English Dolby Digital 5.1, Dolby Digital stereo Surround, French Dolby Digital Surround; Subtitles: English, French, Spanish; audio commentary; deleted scenes; theatrical trailers.
World Trade Center [Blu-ray](2006)
Oliver Stone's harrowing, heroic September 11th drama tells the inspiring true story of New York City Port Authority policemen John McLoughlin (Nicolas Cage) and Will Jimeno (Michael Pena). Trapped under the debris of the twin towers while attempting to rescue others, McLoughlin and Jimeno endure a nightmarish ordeal of physical and spiritual anguish, as their families await news of their fate. Maria Bello, Maggie Gyllenhaal also star. Widescreen (Enhanced); Soundtrack: English.
julie adams dvds available from amazon.com
julie adams movie posters and photos available
World Trade Center (2006) with Nicolas Cage
King B: A Life in the Movies (1993) with Connie Stevens, Steve Allen, Parley Baer, Vince Edwards, Beverly Garland, and Dwayne Hickman
The Conviction of Kitty Dodds (1993) with Veronica Hamel and Kevin Dobson
Backtrack (1989) with Dennis Hopper, Jodie Foster, Vincent Price, and John Turturro
Black Roses (1988)
Champions (1984) with John Hurt
The Fifth Floor (1978) with Bo Hopkins, Robert Englund, John David Carson, and Mel Ferrer
Goodbye, Franklin High (1978) with Ann Dusenberry, Darby Hinton, and William Windom
Six Characters in Search of an Author (1976) with Reb Brown, Pat Ast, Andy Griffith, Patricia Hitchcock, and John Houseman
The Killer Inside Me (1976) with Stacy Keach, Don Stroud, Tisha Sterling, and John Carradine
Psychic Killer (1975) with Paul Burke, Jim Hutton, Nehemiah Persoff, Neville Brand, Rod Cameron, Whit Bissell, Della Reese, and Greydon Clark
The Wild McCullochs (1975) with Forrest Tucker, Max Baer Jr., Don Grady, and William Demarest
McQ (1974) with John Wayne, Clu Gulager, Eddie Albert, Diana Muldaur, and Colleen Dewhurst
Go Ask Alice (1973) with William Shatner, Ruth Roman, Andy Griffith, Robert Carradine, and Mackenzie Phillips
The Last Movie (1971) with Dennis Hopper and Toni Basil
The Trackers (1971) with Sammy Davis Jr., Ernest Borgnine, and Jim Davis
Valley of Mystery (1967) with Richard Egan, Peter Graves, Lisa Gaye, Lois Nettleton, Fernando Lamas, Karen Sharpe, and Lee Patterson
Tickle Me (1965) with Elvis Presley, Merry Anders, Allison Hayes, Bill Williams, and Francine York
Gold, Glory and Custer (1962) with Clint Walker
The Underwater City (1962) with William Lundigan
Raymie (1960) with David Ladd, John Agar, and Richard Arlen
The Gunfight at Dodge City (1959) with Joel McCrea
Tarawa Beachhead (1958) with Ray Danton, Kerwin Mathews, Karen Sharpe, and William Boyett
Slim Carter (1957) with Jock Mahoney, William Hopper, Barbara Hale, Ben Johnson, Joanna Cook Moore, and Bill Williams
Slaughter on Tenth Avenue (1957) with Richard Egan, Jan Sterling, and Mickey Hargitay
Four Girls in Town (1956) with George Nader and Grant Williams
Away All Boats (1956) with Jeff Chandler, George Nader, Lex Barker, Jock Mahoney, and Keith Andes
The Private War of Major Benson (1955) with Charlton Heston
One Desire (1955) with Rock Hudson and Anne Baxter
Six Bridges to Cross (1955) with George Nader
The Looters (1955) with Rory Calhoun and Ray Danton
Francis Joins the Wacs (1954) with Mamie Van Doren, Mara Corday, and Allison Hayes
Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954) with Richard Carlson, Richard Denning, Nestor Paiva, and Whit Bissell
The Man from the Alamo (1953) with Glenn Ford, Chill Wills, Victor Jory, Hugh O'Brian, Jeanne Cooper, and
The Stand at Apache River (1953) with Stephen McNally, Hugh Marlowe, Hugh O'Brian, Russell Johnson, and Jack Kelly
Wings of the Hawk (1953) with Van Heflin, Abbe Lane, George Dolenz, and Noah Beery
The Mississippi Gambler (1953) with Tyrone Power, Piper Laurie, William Reynolds, and Guy Williams
The Lawless Breed (1952) with Rock Hudson, John McIntire, Hugh O'Brian,
Dennis Weaver, Lee Van Cleef, Richard Garland, and Glenn Strange
Horizons West (1952) with Robert Ryan, Rock Hudson, Raymond Burr, James Arness, Dennis Weaver, and Frances Bavier
Bend of the River (1952) with James Stewart, Arthur Kennedy, Rock Hudson, Lori Nelson, Jay C. Flippen, Frances Bavier, and Stepin Fetchit
The Treasure of Lost Canyon (1952) with William Powell, Rosemary DeCamp, and Charles Drake
Finders Keepers (1951) with Tom Ewell, Richard Reeves, Jack Elam, Harvey Lembeck, and Madge Blake
Hollywood Story (1951) with Richard Conte, Richard Egan, Henry Hull, Fred Clark, Jim Backus, and Francis X. Bushman
Bright Victory (1951) with Arthur Kennedy, Peggy Dow, Will Geer, Jim Backus, and Richard Egan
Crooked River (1950) with James Ellison, Russell Hayden, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Tom Tyler
Fast on the Draw (1950) with James Ellison, Russell Hayden, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Tom Tyler
Hostile Country (1950) with James Ellison, Russell Hayden, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Tom Tyler
Marshal of Heldorado (1950) with James Ellison, Russell Hayden, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Tom Tyler
West of the Brazos (1950) with James Ellison, Russell Hayden, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Tom Tyler
Colorado Ranger (1950) with James Ellison, Russell Hayden, Raymond Hatton, Fuzzy Knight, and Tom Tyler
The Dalton Gang (1949) with Don 'Red' Barry, Robert Lowery, and Byron Foulger
Red, Hot and Blue (1949) with Betty Hutton, Victor Mature, William Demarest, June Havoc, and William Talman
Murder, She Wrote, 1984-1996 CBS-TV series. Adams portrayed Eve Simpson for five seasons (1987-1993)
Capitol, 1982-1987 CBS-TV soap opera. Adams portrayed Paula Denning
Code Red, 1981-1982 TV series. Adams portrayed Ann Rorchek
The Jimmy Stewart Show, 1971-1972 TV series. Adams portrayed Martha Howard
The Bold Ones: The Lawyers, 1969-1973 TV series. Adams portrayed Mrs. David Craig during the 1970-1971 season
General Hospital, 1963-present ABC-TV soap opera. Adams portrayed Denise Wilton in 1968
Yancy Derringer, 1958-1959 TV series starring Jock Mahoney. Adams portrayed Amanda Eaton
julie adams linksThe Julie Adams Official Web Site
julie adams now showingWatch Julie Adams in a 1961 episode of Bonanza titled The Courtship
Click on the logo to go back to Brian's Drive-In Theater
This page premiered January 31, 2001.
Copyright and Disclaimer Information